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Definitions and Glossary

Achilles Tendonitis: Refers to inflammation of the Achilles tendon - the tendon formed by the joining of both calf muscles (gastrocnemius and soleus) where they attach into your heel bone (calcaneus).

Back Pain/injuries: Back pain can be due to many causes - the most common being a strain of the paraspinal muscles. Other common causes of back pain are disc injuries, joint problems, and nerve entrapment syndromes.

Bicipital Tendonitis: Refers to inflammation or injury of the tendon which attaches to the biceps muscles.

Bursitis: A bursa is a small fluid-filled sac that reduces friction between surfaces by acting as a gliding surface between tissues of the body. Bursitis refers to inflammation of a bursa.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS): An often painful condition caused by compression of the median nerve which is located in the carpal tunnel. CTS is often characterized by numbness of the first three fingers. Compression of the median nerve can occur anywhere from the shoulder to the hand, creating a pseudo CTS syndrome.

Compartment Syndrome: This is a condition in which there is swelling and an increase in pressure within a body compartment (example: posterior compartment of the leg). Compartment syndromes cause arterial compression and consequent reduction of blood supply. This can be a very serious condition that may require immediate medical attention.

Frozen Shoulder: Also referred to as adhesive capsulitis, where the connective tissue surrounding the shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint) becomes inflamed, stiff, and thickened. This condition can greatly restrict motion and can be the source of considerable pain.

Gait Imbalances: This is a divergence from normal walking patterns that often results from dysfunctions of the musculoskeletal or nervous system.

Golf Injuries: The most common golf injuries are back pain, elbow injuries, rotator cuff injuries, wrist injuries, hand injuries and knee problems.

Golfer's Elbow(Tendonitis): Also know as medial epicondylitis (inside of elbow), this is an inflammatory condition of the elbow - often caused by repetitive motion and involving numerous musculoskeletal structures.

Hand Injuries: There are many types of hand injuries - most are caused by repetitive motion or trauma. These injuries often involve both soft tissues and osseous structures.

Headaches: Refers to pain or discomfort in the head or facial area. Headaches often involve several areas of the musculoskeletal system, head, jaw (TMJ), neck and shoulders. Headaches can be single or recurrent in nature; they can also be localized to one or multiple areas.

Hip Pain: Pain in or around the hip joint area where the upper end of the thigh bone (femur) fits into the socket of the hip bone acetabulum. Hip pain is often related to degeneration, injury, or inflammation of musculoskeletal structures.

Hyperextension / Hyperflexion Injuries: An injury to the neck (the cervical spine) resulting from rapid acceleration or deceleration. Also know as a whiplash injury often related to motor vehicle accidents but can be related to any type of neck trauma.

Iliotibial Band Syndrome: A common injury to the outside thigh and hip causing knee pain. This injury is often associated with running, cycling, hiking, or weight-lifting. The Iliotibial band is a fibrous structure running from the outside of the hip joint to the lower leg below the knee.

Impingement Syndromes: A syndrome in which soft tissue is entrapped or impinged between two hard structures resulting in inflammation, pain, and dysfunction.

Knee Meniscus Injuries: Injuries of the cartilage pads between the two joints that are formed by the thigh bone (femur) and the shin bone (tibia). The meniscus acts as a smooth surface for the joint to move on and for shock absorption.

Muscle Pulls Or Strains: A strain is an injury to a muscle or tendon in which the muscle fibers tear as a result of injury. A muscle tear can range from Grade 1 (minor) to Grade 3 (total tear).

Myofascitis: Inflammation of both muscle and fascia.

Nerve Entrapment Syndromes: Any syndrome resulting from pressure placed on a nerve by surrounding structures. An example would be carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS).

Repetitive Strain Injuries (RSI): Also known as a repetitive stress injury, or cumulative trauma disorder (CTD). This type of musculoskeletal injury is often caused by repetitive motion, forceful exertions, vibration, mechanical compression, or working in prolonged or uncomfortable positions.

Plantar Fasciitis: This painful inflammatory condition of the foot is often caused by repetitive motion. The term “itis” means inflammation. In the medical literature, Plantar Fasciitis is most often described as an inflammation of the plantar aponeurosis or plantar fascia. The plantar fascia is a thin band of fibrous tissue that runs from the calcaneus (heel bone) to the base of the toes.

Post-Surgical Restrictions: This refers to scar tissue or adhesions that often form after surgery.

Running Injuries: A wide variety of conditions often caused by repetitive motion, muscle imbalances, lack of physical conditioning, poor training programs, poor technique, or inappropriate equipment. Common running injuries include: Iliotibial Band Syndrome, hamstring injuries, back pain, shin splints, plantar fasciitis, knee injuries, Achilles tendonitis, and ankle sprains.

Rotator Cuff Syndrome: Refers to injury or tears to one or more of the Rotator cuff muscles or tendons. The four muscles that form the rotator cuff are the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis.

Shin Splints: The term "shin splints" refers to pain along the tibia (shinbone). The pain is often caused by increased loading of the muscles that attach to the tibia.

Scar Tissue Formation: Refers to the connective tissue that forms a scar; this tissue consists of fibroblasts in new scars and collagen fibers in old scars. Scar tissue often inhibits the normal gliding motion of muscles and nerves. In addition it often causes a decrease in circulatory function.

Sciatica: Is a set of symptoms that may be caused by compression or irritation of the nerve roots in the low back (lumbar spine), or by compression or irritation of the sciatic nerve. Irritation of the sciatic nerve often results in pain or altered sensation down the effected leg.

Swimmer's Shoulder: Swimmer's Shoulder is the term used to describe shoulder pain in the competitive swimmer. This condition is often associated with an increase in joint laxity and injury to the rotator cuff muscles of the shoulder.

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome (TOS): This condition consists of a group of disorders involving arterial or neurological compression of the blood vessels or nerves that pass between the chest and upper extremity.

Tendonitis: Refers to inflammation in or around tendons. Tendons are bands of strong fibrous tissue that connect muscle to bone.

Tennis Elbow: The condition is also known as lateral epicondylitis or inflammation on the outside elbow. This injury also occurs without inflammation being present.

TMJ: This refers to the temporomandibular joint of the jaw. There are two TMJs, one on either side of your head, which work in unison. The name TMJ is derived from the two bones which form the joint - the upper temporal bone, and the lower jaw bone called the mandible.

Whiplash: An injury to the neck (the cervical spine) resulting from rapid acceleration or deceleration. Also know as a Hyperextension Hyperflexion Injury. This injury is often related to motor vehicle accidents but can be related to any type of neck trauma.